Congenital maxilofacial deformity

Maxillofacial surgery

 

The most common congenital disorders include cleft lip and cleft palate caused by abnormal facial development of the fetus. Cleft lip (“hare lip”) and cleft palate may occur separately or in combination. The degree, form and combination of these alterations show significant differences from barely detectable mucous membrane or subcutaneous muscular defects to facial fissures distorting the harmony of the entire face.

Cleft lip and palate are well treatable disorders that can be most effectively treated in childhood but may also bring results in adulthood. The service which is based on individually tailored treatment plan isalways acomplex process lasting for years or even throughout the whole life where the list of participants include otorhinolaryngologist, logopedist and orthodontist in addition to the maxillofacial surgeon.

In terms of surgical intervention, there are 5 types of primary surgeries depending on the type of the lesion which are combined depending on the type and extension of the fissure and may be supplemented with further secondary surgeries if necessary:

  • lip/nose adhesion (leading the deformed maxillary bones and the nose into a proper position which greatly influences the efficacy of the final lip repair surgery)
  • final lip repair (within a few months after birth but at the very latest until the age of 6 months)
  • Cleft soft palate repair (around the age of 1)
  • Cleft hard palate repair (around the age of 1 but always before the age of 4)
  • Cleft alveolar process repair (around the age of 10)

After the surgeries it is expected to stay in the hospital for 1 to 3 days. Otorhynolaryngological monitoring is very important both during and between the individual surgeries in order to avoid ear inflammations.

Regular examination by the dentist is necessary for proper denture development and in most cases, orthodontic treatment is also needed for the facial bone to develop as harmonically as possible. Logopedic therapy is indispensable for the speech development of children with cleft palate.